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UPC: C/ Jordi Girona 31, (08034 - Barcelona) - IDAEA: C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, (08034 - Barcelona)

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Artificial recharge

Managed Aquifer Recharge

Key Words

Artificial recharge, water quality, infiltration, clogging, emerging compounds


The artificial recharge of aquifers, which consists of the infiltration of underground water in facilities designed for this purpose, constitutes an important tool in the management of water resources. Beyond increasing groundwater resources, there is great interest in the natural treatment capacity that subsurface traffic confers on water. The processes that take place in the soil-aquifer system (filtration, adsorption, mixing, redox reactions, biodegradation, etc.) allow a general improvement in water quality, even eliminating various organic pollutants

We developed methodology to analyse the influence of redox conditions on the removal rate of organic micropollutants, which is important for the design of artificial recharge systems. We tested the methodology and found that degradation rates are indeed sensitive to redox state (Figure 1). In fact, contaminants that degrade very slowly under aerobic conditions degrade much faster under highly reducing conditions.



Motivation and background:

The ultimate motivation of this work is artificial recharge of groundwater. Artificial recharge is beneficial both in quantitative (augmentation of groundwater resources, long term underground storage, etc.) and qualitative terms (overall improvement of water quality during aquifer passage: decreasing of suspended solids, pathogens, nitrogen, phosphates, metals and dissolved organic carbon) (Bouwer, 2002). The interest in this technique is also related to the capability of subsoil processes to partially or totally remove organic contaminants from water (Aronson et al., 1999 and references therein; Christensen et al., 2001 and references therein; Neuhauser et al., 2009). Nowadays a great scientific effort is dedicated to verifying whether organic micropollutants could also be effectively removed because they are not eliminated by conventional water treatments (Gros et al., 2010; Onesios et al., 2009 and references therein; Petrovic et al., 2009 and references therein; Stackelberg et al., 2007). The passage of water through the soil-aquifer system during artificial recharge may representan alternative or complementary treatment for their removal.

As a general rule, the fate of organic compounds within the aquifer depends on lithology, hydraulic and textural properties of the soil, temperature, physico-chemical properties of the specific compound, and microbial environment. Among all these factors, the predominant redox state of the aquifer revealed to play a significant role (Aronson et al., 1999 and references therein; Bosma et al., 1996; Broholm and Arvin, 2000 and references therein; Christensen et al., 2001; Kao et al., 2003 and references therein). Since certain pollutants are preferably removed under some particular redox conditions, such conditions could be promoted in artificial recharge practices. Even more important, if different compounds are degraded under different redox environments, a water mass undergoing a sequence of redox states should have most of its initial contaminants eliminated.

However, in the case of organic micropollutants the knowledge on this potential redox-dependent behaviour is still limited, which motivate the objective of this work, namely, to propose a methodology to derive the degradation kinetics of emerging micropollutants under controlled redox conditions.

Methods and results

We proposed a methodology to perform microcosm experiments involving aquifer material, settings potentially feasible in field applications, and organic micropollutants at environmental concentrations. Different anaerobic redox conditions were promoted and sustained in each set of microcosms by adding adequate quantities of electron donors and acceptors (For instance, to ensure nitrate reducing conditions, we added a high concentration of nitrate and some acetate, see Figure 1). Whereas denitrification and sulphate-reducing conditions are easily achieved and maintained, Fe- and Mn- reduction are strongly constrained by the slower dissolution of the solid phases commonly present in aquifers. The thorough description and numerical modeling of the evolution of the experiments, including major and trace solutes and dissolution/precipitation of solid phases, have been proven necessary to the understanding of the processes and closing the mass balance. As an example of micropollutants results, the ubiquitous betablocker Atenolol is completely removed in the experiments, the removal occurring faster under more advanced redox conditions (Figure 1). This suggests that aquifers constitute a potentially efficient alternative water treatment for Atenolol, especially if adequate redox conditions are promoted during recharge and long enough residence times are ensured.


Application and extensions:

The methodology described in this paper was applied to other emerging contaminants in subsequent papers (Barbieri et al, 2012a&b). It has also been used to understand the observations of emerging contaminants in urban groundwater (see Vazquez et al, 2010 and Jurado et al., 2012, 2013). However, the most successful application has been the design of a reactive layer that was built on the infiltration basin of Sant Vicenç dels Horts near Barcelona. This layer consisted of: vegetable compost to promote reducing conditions and provide sorption sites for neutral compounds (some 49% in volume), sand to ensure structural integrity and high permeability (50%), and clay (1%) to promote sorption of cationic compounds. The layer was covered with sand to prevent floating of the vegetable compost and facilitate access, and a film of iron oxide to sorb anionic compounds. Removal of emerging contaminants after artificial recharge through the soil and 2-7 days residence in the aquifer was greatly enhanced after construction of the reactive layer (Figure 2). More importantly, from a practical point of view, the basin has operated without clogging and maintaining reducing conditions for over two years, which we attribute to the growth of plants, which also contribute to a beautiful view. I am convinced that this type of basin will become standard for reutilization of treated water and that the concept of promoting reducing conditions to enhance removal of recalcitrant contaminants will become one of the tools to alleviate generalized aquifer pollution by manure and other fertiliser application in agriculture.



RESTORA (2020-2023)


RESTORA has the objective of developing an improved Artificial Recharge with reactive layers and demonstrating that it is capable of renaturing the aquifer water with optimal quality in the face of the most classic pollutants such as organic matter and pathogens, and new quality challenges such as EOCs and ARGs. Furthermore, RESTORA intends to demonstrate that this is feasible with waters that come from residual tributaries, helping to close the hydrological cycle, favoring a circular economy.

The RESTORA team is a multidisciplinary team made up of engineers, hydrogeologists, chemists and biologists who work in four consolidated research groups: the Grup d'Hidrologia Subterrània of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i de l'IDAEA-CSIC and for the Unit of Water and Subsoil Quality of the IDAEA-CSIC; the Environmental Toxicology group and the Health, Economic and Cooperation Hydrology Group of the UB.



In the project MARadentro we will develop a type of soil filter to mimic the natural way groundwater is formed. In the soil, pollutants and pathogens are retained, either degraded by soil microorganisms or trapped and inactivated by physical processes. MARadentro will combine hydrogeology, geochemistry, microbiology and modelling to address the risks with reuse of water and at the same time gather knowledge to establish recommendations to stakeholders and authorities.

To meet the aim, the specific goals are:

  1. Enhance water quality improvement during MAR through advanced tools to stimulate natural attenuation of pollutants and pathogen retention. These tools include reactive layers based on biotic systems (fungi and microorganisms) to promote degradation and transformation processes and to boost retention by plants, as well as abiotic processes (e.g. enhancing sorption by addition of organic carbon and Fe). We will also analyze the effect of reactive layers on (i) improvement of pathogen retention and (ii) enhancement of antimicrobial activity. In agreement with the JRC4, the layers will be tested on selected microbial indicators representing a broad range of pathogens.
  2. Quantify water quality improvement during MAR through the determination of pathogens, nutrients and pollutants removal. A screening approach will be applied to assess requirements for further chemical analysis by a range of effect-based tools (biomarkers, bioassays) to account for the presence of compounds with similar effects and to limit the number of chemical analyses.
  3. Resort to reactive transport modelling tools to predict the behavior of pathogens and pollutants. Modeling will emphasize understanding on the relationship between pollutant degradation, pathogen retention and inactivation and microbial communities.
  4. Address the challenges in up-scaling MAR operations from lab tests to a pilot MAR and a real field MAR site.
  5. Perform an environmental risk assessment by advanced modeling tools to test whether the use of reclaimed water for the proposed MAR system has no adverse effects on the ecosystem.
  6. Evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed system in a real field MAR.
  7. Transfer knowledge gained and provide recommendations to stakeholders for efficient implementation and operation of MAR, and to authorities and policy makers on water to help for an EU regulation on MAR.
  8. Promote the general public acceptance on water reuse and MAR.

As shown in Figure 1, it is formed by 8 WPs which are interlinked:

Figura 1. Global flow diagram and interdependence of WPs.

Tabla 1.1. Description of MARadentro WP 


WP Titulo








Data mining – exp. design




Lab testing




Pilot MAR testing




Field MAR testing




Transport modelling   and risk assessment




Economic balance











In the framework of the ACWAPUR project (ACcelerated WAter PURification during artificial recharge of aquifers, a tool to restore drinking water resources) the aim is to study the effect of reactive barriers and the role of plants for treating treated water. For this, a 6-tank battery has been designed in which the recharge basin and the aquifer are simulated for different conditions.

The water that will be used for recharging is the secondary outlet of a treatment plant, so the experimental ponds are being built within the enclosure of a WWTP.




The main objective of this project is to enhance Soil Aquifer Treatment to improve the quality of recharge water in the Llobregat River Delta Aquifer.








Area of Study

The main area of study is the Llobregat River, from the Sant Andreu Basin to the Lower Valley and the Delta. In this area several recharge activities are taking place simultaneously:

  • Scarification activities at the river bed (Lower Valley),
  • Deep injection from drinking water quality surpluses (Delta),
  • Surface ponds in Castellbisbal (St. Andreu Basin),
  • Surface ponds in St. Vicenç dels Horts (Lower Valley),
  • Seawater positive barrier (Delta), previously active, now discontinued
  • Surface ponds in Santa Coloma de Cervelló (Lower Valley), as a potential site for new activities
  • This research line is and has been done in collaboration with a number of European partners working on sites all along Europe, including Portugal (Algarve, stormwater infiltration), Spain (Santiuste, Segovia, river water infiltration), Italy (Brenta River and Serchio River, induced recharge and river water infiltration), Malta (desalinated water injected in deep wells), Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki, treated wastewater reinjection, and Israel (Dan Region, treated wastewater, and Menashe, desalinated water infiltration).



Research lines

Our research focuses on three main activities:

    1. Quantitative evaluation, focused on the variations of infiltration rates with time, coupled to bioclogging formation at the surface of the infiltration ponds or wells. An example of the evolution of the infiltration rate in the Sant Vicenç dels Horts site is given below


    1. Control and monitoring of water quality, including here both the variations in water quality during infiltration, focusing in particular in redox zonification, and the presence of mixing of the indigenous and the recharged water as a result of hydrodynamic dispersion. Emphasis is given to ways to promote such mixing.This work has been done by a combination of batch, column and tank experiments (see attached figure), field work and numerical simulations.


During infiltration a number of biogeochemical processes take place, allowing for a multidisciplinary analysis. For example, we can monitor oxygen content along a vertical transect and as a function of time.

And correlate it with an indicator of biological activity diversity, such as the electron transport system activity or the microbial functional diversity (a measure of entropy, known as the Shannon Index)


Emerging compound degradation during MAR practices, measured both in batch and column experiments, as well as in the Sant Vicenç dels Horts site (see figure)

Publications :

 Canelles, A., Rodriguez-Escales, P., JanModrznski, J., Albers, C., Sanchez Vila, X. (2021). Impact of compost reactive layer on hydraulic transport and C & N cycles: Biogeochemical modeling of infiltration column experiments. Science of the Total Environment Volum., 770 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145490

Pérez-Paricio, A., & Carrera, J. (2020). A conceptual and numerical model to characterize clogging. In Artificial Recharge of Groundwater (pp. 55-60). CRC Press.

Pérez-Paricio, A.; Carrera, J. (2020) Operational guidelines regarding clogging. En Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. CRC Press, 2020. p. 441-445. Operational guidelines regarding clogging. En Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. CRC Press, 2020. p. 441-445.

Rodriguez-Escales, P., Sanchez-Vila, X. (2020). Modeling the fate of UV filters in subsurface: Co-metabolic degradation and the role of biomass in sorption proccesses. Water Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115192

Valhondo, C., Martinez-Landa, M., Carrera, J., Diaz-Cruz, S., Amalfinano, S., Levantesi, C. (2020). Six artificial recharge pilot replicates to gain insight into water quality enhancement processes. Chemosphere, v 240. February 2020.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124826

Valhondo, C., Carrera, J., Martinez-Landa, L., Wang, J., Amalfitano, S., Levantesi, C., Diaz-Cruz, S.(2020). Reactive barriers for renaturalization of reclaimed water during soil aquifer treatment.Water 12 (4), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041012

Rodriguez-Escales, P., Barba, C., Sanchez-Vila, X., Jacques, D. (2020). Coupling Flow, Heat, and Reactive Transport Modeling to reproduce in situ Redox Potential Evolution: Application to an Infiltration Pond. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 19, 12092–12101. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03056
Barba, C., Folch, A., Gaju, N., Sanchez-Vila, X., Carrasquilla, M., Grau-Martínez, A. & Martínez-Alonso, M. (2019): Microbial community changes induced by Managed Aquifer Recharge activities: linking hydrogeological and biological processes. - Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 139-154. doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-139-2019

Valhondo, C., Carrera, J. (2019). Water as a fineteresource: From historical accomplishments to emerging challanges anda artificial recharge. Sustainable Water and Wastewater Processing. Elsevier, 01/06/2019. ISBN 9780128161708

Rodríguez-Escales, P., Canelles, A., Sanchez-Vila, X., Folch, A., Kurtzman, D., Rossetto, R., Fernández-Escalante, E., Lobo-Ferreira, J.-P., Sapiano, M., San-Sebastián, J. & Schüth, C. (2018): A risk assessment methodology to evaluate the risk failure of managed aquifer recharge in the Mediterranean Basin. - Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3213–3227.

Valhondo, C., Martinez-Landa, L., Carrera, J., Ayora, C., Nödler, K., Licha, T. (2018). Evaluation of EOC removal processes during artificial recharge through a reactivebarrier. Science of The Total Environment. 612, pp. 985 - 994. 2018. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.054

San-Sebastián-Sauto, J., Fernandez-Escalante, E., Calero-Gil, R., Carvalho & Rodriguez-Escales, P. (2018). Characterization and benchmarking of seven managed aquifer chararge systems in south-western Europe. Sustainable Water Resources Management 4 (17). DOI:10.1007/s40899-018-0232-x

Grau-Martínez, A., Folch, A., Torrentó, C., Valhondo, C., Barba, C., Domènech, C., Soler, a., Otero, N. (2018). Monitoring induced denitrification during managed aquifer recharge inan infiltration pond. Journal of Hydrology. 561, pp. 123 - 135. 2018. DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.03.044

Rodríguez-Escales, P., Fernández-García, D., Drechsel, J., Folch, A., Sanchez-Vila, X. (2017): Improving degradation of benzotriazoles by applying chaotic advection in Managed Aquifer Recharge in randomly heterogeneous porous media. - Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/2016WR020333.

Isabel Tubau; Enric Vázquez-Suñé; Carrera, J., Valhondo, C., Criollo, R. (2017) Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments. Science of The Total Environment.
592, pp. 391 - 402. 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.118

Valhondo, C., L. Martínez-Landa; Carrera, J.; J. J. Hidalgo; I. Tubau; K. De Pourcq; A. Grau-Martínez; C. Ayora. (2016) Tracer test modeling for characterizing heterogeneity and local-scale residence time distribution in an artificial recharge site. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 20 - 10, pp. 4209 - 4221. 2016. DOI: 10.5194/hess-20-4209-2016

Rodríguez-Escales, P., Folch, A., Vidal-Gavilan, G. & van Breukelen, B.M. (2016): Modeling biogeochemical processes and isotope fractionation of enhanced in situ biodenitrification in a fractured aquifer. - Chem. Geol., 425, 52-64.

Dutta, T., Carles-Brangarí, A., Fernàndez-Garcia, D., Rubol, S., Tirado-Conde, J. & Sanchez-Vila, X. (2015): Vadose zone oxygen (O2) dynamics during drying and wetting cycles: An artificial recharge laboratory experiment. - Journal of Hydrology, 527, 151-159.

Rahbaralam, M., Fernandez-Garcia, D. & Sanchez-Vila, X. (2015): Do we really need a large number of particles to simulate bimolecular reactive transport with random walk methods? A kernel density estimation approach. - Journal of Computational Physics, 303, 95-104.

Valhondo, C., Carrera, J., Ayora, C, Tubau, I., Martinez-Landa, L., Nödler, K., Licha, T. (2015). Characterizing redox conditions and monitoring attenuation of selected pharmaceuticals during artificial recharge through a reactive layer. Science of The Total Environment. 512-513, pp. 240 - 250. 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.030

Valhondo, C., Carrera, J.; Ayora, C., Barbieri, M., Nödler, K., Licha, T., Huerta, M. (2014). Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21 - 20, pp. 11832 - 11843. 10/2014.DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2834-7

Hernandez, M., Gilbert, O., Bernat, X., Valhondo, C., Köck-Schulmeyer, M., Huerta-Fontela. M., Colomer, V. (2014). Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain). Boletín Geológico Minero. 125 - 2, pp. 157 - 172. IGME, 13/06/2014.

Armengol, S., Sanchez-Vila, X. & Folch, A. (2014): An approach to aquifer vulnerability including uncertainty in a spatial random function framework. - Journal of Hydrology, 517, 889-900; Elsevier.

Rubol, S., Freixa, A., Carles-Brangarí, A., Fernàndez-Garcia, D., Romaní, A.M. & Sanchez-Vila, X. (2014): Connecting bacterial colonization to physical and biochemical changes in a sand box infiltration experiment. - Journal of Hydrology, 517, 317-327; Elsevier.

Riva, M., Sanchez-Vila, X. & Guadagnini, A. (2014): Estimation of spatial covariance of log conductivity from particle size data. - Water Resour. Res., 50, 5298-5308; doi:10.1002/2014WR015566.

Barbieri, M., Carrera, J., Ayora, C., Sanchez-Vila, X., Licha, T., Nodler,K., Osorio,V., Pérez, S., Kock-Schumulmeyer, M., López de Alda, M., Barceló, D. 2012. Formation of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole reversible transformation products in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions: batch experiments, Science of the Total Environment, 23-APR-2012, DOI information: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.058

Barbieri, M., Licha, T., Nodler,K., Carrera, J., Ayora, C., Sanchez-Vila, X., (2012). Fate of beta-blockers in aquifer material under nitrate reducing conditions: Batch experiments, Chemosphere V.89 (2012) 1272–1277 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.019   Published: NOV 2012

Barbieri, M., Carrera, J., Sanchez Vila, X., Ayora, C., Cama, J., Kock-Shulmeyer, M., De alda, ML, Barcelo, D., Brunet, JM., Garcia, MH. (2011). Microcosm experiments to control anaerobic redox conditions when studying the fate of organic micropollutants in aquifer material, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Volume: 126, Issue: 3-4  Pages: 330-345   DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2011.09.003

Pérez-Paricio, A., Benet, I., Saaltink, M. W., Ayora, C., & Carrera, J. (2000). CLOG: A code to address the clogging of Artificial Recharge systems. In Computational Methods for Flow and Transport in Porous Media (pp. 339-351). Springer, Dordrecht.

Master's thesis:

Title: Resolución del transporte conservativo de solutos utilizando una formulación mixta euleriana-lagrangiana de la ecuación de transporte/Author: Lluís Rodríguez Pérez ; Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramírez, Francisco Batlle Pifarré. Date: 2001

Title: Cálculo de especiación química a partir de los análisis convencionales de agua subterránea/Author: Sergi Molins i Rafa/Advisor: Carlos Ayora Ibañez, Jesús Carrera Ramírez/Date: 2001

Title: Caracterización de la recarga  y estimación del almacenamiento en el acuífero kárstico de Troya (Guipúzcoa) mediante la utilización del moedlo Visal Balan y la realización de balances hídricos generales/Author: Mònica Valls Màrquez/Advisor: Vicente Iribar y Jesus Carrera Ramirez/Date: 2001

Title: Determinación de la infiltración mediante perfiles de temperatura-profundidad en el terreno mesurados en perforaciones./Author: Carles Mujal Colilles/Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramirez y Sebastian Olivella Pastallé/Date: 2001
Title: Simulación numérica de los procesos de oxidación en aguas naturales/Author: Sandra Sabartés Diaz/Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramirez/Date: 2000

Title: Estudio del transporte y la degradación de la materia orgánica durante la recarga artificial de acuíferos mejorada con barreras reactivas/Author: Garcia Minguez, Julià/AdvisorSaaltink, Maarten WillemValhondo González, CristinaCarrera Ramírez, Jesús/Date2018-09-20 

Title: Desarrollo de un método para el diseño de redes de observación mediante la teoría geoestadística/author: Sebastià Olivella i Pastallé/Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramírez/Tipo de documento: Projecte Final de Carrera/Date: 1995
Title: Análisis numérico de la interacción entre bombeo, recarga al acuífero y escorrentía en una pequeña cuenca forestal/Author: Carlos Martín Freixa/Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramírez /Tipo de documento: Projecte Final de Màster Oficial/Date: 1995
Title: Estudio del efecto de almacenaje en pozos de observación sobre los descensos producidos en ellos/Author: Higini Alfageme i Carrera/Advisor: Jesús Carrera Ramírez/Tipo de documento: Projecte Final de Màster Oficial/Date:1987
Title: Integrated modelling of clogging processes in artificial groundwater recharge
Author: Pérez Paricio, Alfredo
Utilizad este identificador para citar o enlazar esta tesis: http://hdl.handle.net/10803/6214
Advisor: Carrera Ramírez, Jesús
Departamento/Instituto: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament d'Enginyeria del Terreny, Cartogràfica i Geofísica
Defense year: 2001
Title:Effect of redox conditions on the fate of emergin organic micropollutants during artificial recharge of groundwater: batch experiment
Author: Barbieri, Manuela
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament d'Enginyeria del Terreny, Cartogràfica i Geofísica
Defense year: 2011
Title: A reactive barrier to enhance the removal of emerging organic compounds during artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins
Author: Valhondo, Cristina
Cátedra / Departamento / Instituto
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament d'Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental
Tipo de documentoTesis
Defence year: 2017

Títle: Physical, geochemical and microbial parameters driving the improvement of water quality in Managed Aquifer Recharge

Author: Barba Ferrer, Carme

Date: 2018
Advisors: Folch Sancho, Albert/Sanchez Vila, Xavier
Title:Multirate mass transfer and biofilm growth modeling in porous media
Author: Wang, Jingjing
Advisor: Carrera Ramirez, Jesús/Valhondo, Cristina
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament d'Enginyeria del Terreny, Cartogràfica i Geofísica
Defense Year: 2021
Seminar: Evaluación de la mejora de la calidad del agua durante la recarga artificial de acuiferos implementando barreras reactivas/Autor: Sara Ortiz/ Tutor: Jesus Carrera/Proyecto: Maradentro. Link presentación
Seminar: Use of microspheres to understand the fate of pathogens in porous media/Autor: Paula Rodriguez/Proyecto: Restora. 
Seminar: Experimentos de recarga gestionada de acuíferos para la mejora de la calidad de las aguas. Autor: Lurdes Martinez Lnada/Proyecto: Maradentro. Link presentación






















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