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Abiotic nitrite reduction coupled to bioproduced-Fe(II) oxidation in anoxic marine environment. Chemical and isotopic approach

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRÁNEA (UPC-CSIC)

 

A cargo de: Francesco Offedu  IDAEA (CSIC)  

 

Lugar: Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambienta, Modulo D2-Aula CIHS, Planta Baja


Día:Jueves 07 de Febrero

Hora: 12:15 h

 

 

Abstract:

Mining activity yields large amounts of mine tailings which usually contain fine iron- oxyhydroxide minerals (e.g. ferrihydrite). Submarine Tailings Disposal discharges mine tailings offshore in the sea. In this context, dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) are able to catalyze reduction of Fe(III)-oxide minerals, releasing Fe(II) in the environment. Under these reducing conditions, released Fe(II) can oxidize  nitrite, leading to its removal and to Fe(III) depletion (precipitation).

 

This communication shows the results from a number of batch experiments performed i) to study the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite mediated by Shewanella loihica and the fate of bio-produced Fe(II) and ii) to elucidate the mechanisms involved in nitrite removal caused by nitrite reduction and bio-produced Fe(II) oxidation. Experimental conditions emulated a marine environment (anoxic sea water at pH 8.2 and 25 ºC), and nitrite reduction was chemically and isotopically monitored. 

Effects of plantation forestry on Hydrology of Watersheds in Uruguay


SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRÁNEA (UPC-CSIC)
 



A cargo de: Ing. Luis Silveira, Ph.D. UDELAR Facultad de Ingeniería IMFIA Hidrología
 
Lugar:en Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambienta, Modulo D2-Aula CIHS, Planta Baja
Hora: 12:15h
 
Día: Viernes 25 de Enero




Abstract:

Uruguay has encouraged the development of the forestry sector since the promulgation of Forest Law N° 15 939 in December of 1987. Nevertheless, the afforestation of natural
grasslands for industrial use needs to be accompanied by a long-term research program with the purpose of generating indicators that allow sustainable management of the
country’s natural resources, particularly water and soils. The purpose is to present results published by the authors in Hydrological Processes (2009 and 2016), John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd. The first paper describes the studies carried out in a large basin of 2097 km2, located in an area of humid subtropical climate and 1300 mm of long-term mean annual
rainfall, where the conversion of natural grasslands to forests increased up to 540 km2, i.e. 25.7% of the basin area. Daily rainfall and streamflow data were analyzed to compute
the annual and seasonal streamflow behavior before and after afforestation (1975–1993 and 1994–2008, respectively). The annual streamflow decreased between 8.2 and 36.5%
depending on the annual rainfall totals. The streamflow reduction was higher during spring and summer (25.2–38.4%) and smaller during autumn and winter (15–20.3%).
The second paper analyses data collected from two small experimental watersheds of roughly 100-200 hectares located in western Uruguay and covered by Eucalyptus
Globulus ssp. Maidenni and natural grasslands for cattle use, respectively. Total rainfall, stream discharge, rainfall redistribution, soil water content and groundwater level data
were collected. Seasonal and annual water budgets were computed from October of 2006 to September of 2014 to assess the water budget and groundwater recharge. The
annual specific discharge decreased roughly 17% for mean hydrological years. Reduced annual specific discharge is equivalent to the mean annual interception. Reduction rates
vary seasonally and according to accumulated rainfall and its temporary distribution. The degree of specific discharge decline is particularly high for drier seasons. The
computed actual annual evapotranspiration is consistent with international catchment measurements based on data collected from 250 catchment yield experiments for 29
countries. The monitored data also showed no conclusive effects on annual groundwater recharge in the forested watershed relative to the reference pasture
watershed. The resulting hydrological indicators are a valuable input for the Integrated Water Resources Management in order to reduce negative effects regarding water uses
downstream.

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Análisis del descenso del nivel del agua de un lago-cráter tropical (Lago Alchichica, Puebla, México) 

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRÁNEA (UPC-CSIC) 
 
 
A cargo de: Raúl Alberto Silva Aguilera (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) 
 
Hora: 12:15 h
Lugar:Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambienta, Modulo D2-Aula CIHS, Planta Baja
 
Día:Jueves 24 de enero


Abstract:

Alchichica es un lago cráter profundo y alcalino localizado en una cuenca endorreica de clima árido en la zona central de México. Este lago se caracteriza por ser uno de los únicos en el mundo con presencia de estromatolitos. Además, el lago alberga 7 especies endémicas y provee diversos servicios ecosistémicos. En años recientes se ha observado una rápida disminución en el nivel del agua del agua, lo cual es evidente pues una amplia porción de los estromatolitos ha quedado expuesta. Dos factores principales han sido propuestos como las causas principales de este proceso:  el cambio climático y la explotación intensiva de agua subterránea para la agricultura en la zona. Sin embargo, hasta el momento ningún estudio a detalle había sido efectuado. En esta presentación se expondrán los resultados preliminares de un estudio que comprende a) el análisis del contexto hidrogeológico del lago, b) el análisis climático de la zona y c) la estimación de un modelo de balance hidrológico para el periodo de 1966 a 1992. Este estudio pretende comprender con un enfoque integral la relación entre el agua subterránea y el lago, así como la influencia relativa de las componentes climática y antropogénica en el proceso de desecación del lago.

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRÁNEA (UPC-CSIC)

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRÁNEA (UPC-CSIC)

 

Ponente: Jamal  STITOU EL MESSARI (Universidad Abdelmalek Essaadi, Tetuán-Marruecos) 
 
Lugar: Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambienta, Modulo D2-Aula CIHS, Planta Baja
 
Hora: 12:15 h
 
 
Día: Jueves 17 de Enero 


Abstract:
Los recursos hídricos disponibles en Marruecos son limitados. El uso del agua, también está sujeto al continuo aumento de las necesidades, debido a la rápida evolución de la población, la mejora del nivel de vida, el desarrollo industrial y la extensión de la agricultura de regadío. Estas presiones sobre los recursos hídricos están acompañadas por una creciente,  cada vez más grave de degradación del medio. 
En esta presentación se exponen los resultados de una investigación con diversos métodos (geófísicos y hidrogequímicos) realizada en varios acuíferos costeros sujetos a un proceso de salinización por intrusión marina. Las áreas estudiadas están situadas en la parte norte de Marruecoos donde en el NE tenemos los acuíferos detríticos de Smir,  Martil-Alila e oued laou, y en el NW el acuífero detrítico de Charf El Akab.  Los acuíferos están formados por sedimentos detríticos del plio-cuaternario donde generalmente el agua subterránea tiene una alta salinidad y concentraciones altas de nitratos. 
El acuífero Charf El Akab es un acuífero sobreexplotado (NP – 22m) donde se realiza  recarga artificial con aguas superficiales naturales. El estudio hidroquímico del agua del acuífero muestra que la salinidad está condicionada por las actividades humanas (descarga de aguas residuales, agua de riego, agua salada en fusión), por la litología (disolución de rocas evaporíticas), y por procesos naturales. En el área de Smir existe una laguna natural que ha estado alterada por la actividad humana (construcción reciente de la presa de Smir, y la instalación de un puerto deportivo en la salida de la humedal, así como el desarrollo de instalaciones turísticas alrededor de la laguna) afectando al balance hídrico de ésta reduciendo casi un 50% de su superficie. 

The role of sulfate and pH in Rare Earth Elements sorption onto  basaluminite: surface complexation modeling

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGÍA SUBTERRÁNEA (UNIDAD ASOCIADA UPC-CSIC)

Ponente: Alba Lozano . Estudiante PhD


Lugar: Departamento de Ing. Civil y Ambiental     Aula: D2 Aula CIHS

Hora: 12:15h

Día: Jueves 10 Enero


Abstract:
Rare Earth Elements (REE) comprises the group of lanthanides plus Yttrium and Scandium. Nowadays REE are considered Critical Raw Materials: whereas REE have become important for modern technologies, a high risk of supply exists. However, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), which is an environmental concern, contains REE concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than the rest of natural waters. AMD neutralization systems cause REE retention into basaluminite (Al4SO4OH10·5H2O) at pH is higher than 5 and sorption mechanism is proposed as responsible for the process. The objective of the present work is to tudy adsorption of REE plus yttrium and scandium onto synthetic basaluminite over a pH range of 4-7 at room conditions either in absence or presence of sulfate in solution. Experimental results showed REE sorption onto basaluminite is strongly dependent on the pH, starting at pH 5 and increasing with sulfate in solution. REE distribution coefficients, defined as Kd = [REE sorbed]/[REE solution] showed an HREE enrichment with respect to LREE. Experimental results were modeled using a simple Surface Complexation Model (SCM) considering mass law equations where the strong aqueous complexation of REE (M) with sulfate is taken into account: MSO4+ + XOH 
= XOMSO4 + H+. MSO4+ is the aqueous complex which adsorbs as monodentate ligand by proton exchange. Sorption edges and distribution coefficients were predicted in the pH range 4-7 using the surface complexation constants calculated from experimental results. Electrostatic term was not involved due to the insensitivity to ionic strength variation and the resultant neutral surfaces. Stability constants of REE adsorption 
onto this basaluminite has been calculated for the first time taking up a new database of surface complexation constants for this mineral. Complementary, local environment of Y surface complex onto basaluminite 
was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), indicating the existence of a monodentate inner sphere. Both experimental and model results give a comprehensive behavior of REE into basaluminite.



Towards a passive treatment of arsenic-rich Acid Mine Drainage  (AMD) by biological iron and arsenic oxidation

SEMINARIO GRUPO DE HIDROLOGÍA SUBTERRÁNEA (Unidad Asociada UPC-CSIC)


AUTOR: Lidia Fernández. Idaea

LUGAR: Departamento de Ing. Civil y Ambiental. Modulo D2 Aula 001-Cihs

HORARIO: 12:15h

DIA: Jueves 20 de Diciembre de 2018 


Abstract:
Acid Mine Drainages (AMD) are produced by sulfuric tailings from mining of metal ores. They are characterized by high contents of toxic elements like arsenic. One efficient and economical solution for the treatment of 
As in these tailings could be the use of a passive method based on iron and arsenic bacterial oxidation, and the subsequent precipitation of these elements in a stable form. The objective of my PhD thesis was to better understand the environmental and operational factors controlling the efficiency of As removal processes. A continuous-flow pilot approach was implemented in order to better reproduce the real treatment conditions. This study was first performed in a bench-scale bioreactor with controlled conditions (temperature, light, flow, residence time and water height). Then, it was performed in a field-scale bioreactor installed in situ, reproducing a passive treatment in real conditions. These devices were fed with As-rich AMD waters from the ancient mine of Carnoulès (Gard, France). Water and bioprecipitate properties were monitored in both devices, especially the redox speciation of iron and arsenic. This monitoring was held for different environmental and operational conditions. Iron and arsenic speciation in liquid and solid phases was measured by different analytical techniques such as HPLC-ICP-MS, EXAFS and XANES. Mineral identification was made by XRD analysis, while microbiological characterization was made by ARISA, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, and aioA gene  quantification. Results from the lab-scale experiments evidenced the effects of the different operational parameters (water height, hydraulic retention time and the presence/absence of a floating film) on the treatment performance, as well as on the microbiology and mineralogy of the produced bioprecipitates. The field device was used to test the treatment performance under fluctuating environmental conditions (variability of the physico-chemistry of the feed water and of the temperature) and to gain new knowledge about the evolution of the bioprecipitates during six months of treatment. All the knowledge acquired in this PhD thesis could serve as a basis for the design of an arsenic removal stage in AMD treatment processes.

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